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Mga Batas, Programa, at Patakarang Pang-Ekonomiya Kaugnay sa Impormal na Sektor

Ang ilan sa mga batas, programa, at mga patakarang pang-ekonomiya na may kaugnayan sa impormal na sektor ay ang sumusunod: 1.     REPU...

Ang ilan sa mga batas, programa, at mga patakarang pang-ekonomiya na may kaugnayan sa impormal na sektor ay ang sumusunod:

1.    REPUBLIC ACT 8425
Ang batas na ito ay kilala din bilang Social Reform and Poverty Alleviation Act of 1997. Ito ay nilagdaan noong Disyembre 11, 1997 at pormal na ipinatupad noong Hunyo 3, 1998. Itinatadhana ng batas na ito ang pagkilala sa impormal na sektor bilang isa sa mga disadvantaged sector ng lipunang Pilipino na nangangailangan ng tulong sa pamahalaan sa aspektong panlipunan, pang-ekonomiko, pamamahala, at maging ekolohikal. Isinulong ng batas na ito ang tinatawag na Social Reform Agenda (SRA)na naglalayong iahon sa kahirapan ang mga Pilipinong kabilang sa impormal na sektor. Upang maisakatuparan ang mga probisyon ng batas na ito ay itinatag ang National Anti-Poverty Commission (NAPC)bilang ahensiyang tagapag-ugnay at tagapayo tungkol sa mga usaping may kinalaman sa mga bumubuo sa impormal na
sektor. Isa sa mga kasapi ng NAPC ay mula sa sektor ng mga kababaihan bilang pagkilala sa kanilang ambag sa ekonomiya ng bansa.
Maliban pa rito, ayon sa Seksyon 3 ng R.A. 842,5 ang mga bumubuo sa basic at disadvantaged sectors ng lipunang Pilipino ay ang sumusunod; magsasaka, mangingisda, manggagawa sa pormal na sektor, migrant workers (OFW), kababaihan, senior citizens, kabataan at mga mag-aaral (15-30 taong gulang), mga bata (minors - 18 taong gulang pababa), urban poor (mga taong naninirahan sa mga lungsod na ang kita ay lubhang mababa), mga manggagawa sa impormal na sektor, mga katutubo, mga may kapansanan (differently-abled persons), non-governmental organizations (NGO’s), at mga kooperatiba.
2.    REPUBLIC ACT 9710

Ang batas na ito ay nilagdaan noong Agosto 14, 2009 at kinilala bilang Magna Carta of Women. Ayon sa batas na ito, ang National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women (NCRFW)ay naging Philippine Commission on Women (PCW). Ito ay isinabatas bilang pandaigdigang pakikiisa ng ating bansa para sa layunin ng United Nations (UN) para sa Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women’s (CEDAW). Kumikilala ito sa ambag at kakayahan ng kababaihan para itaguyod ang pambansang kaunlaran. Sa ilalim ng batas na ito ay inaalis ang lahat o anumang uri ng diskriminasyon laban sa kababaihan, kinikilala at pinangangalagaan ang kanilang karapatang sibil, politikal, at pang-ekonomiko gaya na lamang ng karapatan para makapaghanapbuhay at maging bahagi ng lakas-paggawa, katiyakan para sa kasapatan ng pagkain at mga pinagkukunang-yaman, abot-kayang pabahay, pagpapanatili ng kaugalian at pagkakakilanlang kultural (cultural identity) at iba pang panlipunang aspekto. Ang batas na ito ay malaking tulong sa impormal na sektor sapagkat ayon sa datos na inilabas ng National Statistics Office (NSO), halos kalahati ng mga bumubuo sa sektor na ito ay kababaihan.
3.    PRESIDENTIAL DECREE 442
Ito ay mas kilala bilang Philippine Labor Code na naisabatas noong Mayo 1, 1974. Itinuturing ito bilang pangunahing batas ng bansa para sa mga manggagawa. Ito ay naglalaman ng mga probisyon para sa “espesyal na manggagawa”---kabilang ang mga industrial homeworker, kasambahay, batang manggagawa, at kababaihan---na kabilang sa impormal na sektor. Batay sa Book 2, Title II of the Labor Code,ito ay may probisyon tungkol sa pagsasanay na dapat ipagkaloob sa mga manggagawa upang mapaghusay pa ang kanilang mga kasanayan.
4.    REPUBLIC ACT 7796
Ito ay ang Technical Education and Skills Development Act of 1994na nilagdaan bilang batas noong Agosto 25, 1994. Layunin ng batas na ito na hikayatin ang kabuuang partisipasyon at pakikiisa ng iba’t ibang sektor ng lipunan gaya ng industriya, paggawa, lokal na pamahalaan, teknikal, at bokasyonal na mga institusyon upang mapaghusay ang mga kasanayan para sa pagpapataas o pagpapaibayo ng kalidad ng yamang tao ng ating bansa. Sa ilalim din nito ay itinalaga ang Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA)bilang ahensiya ng pamahalaang itinatag upang makapagbigay ng edukasyong teknikal.
5.    REPUBLIC ACT 8282
Ito ay tinatawag din bilang Social Security Act of 1997. Itinatadhana ng batas na ito na tungkulin ng estado na paunlarin, pangalagaan, at itaguyod ang kagalingang panlipunan at seguridad ng mga manggagawa. Higit sa lahat kung sila ay dumanas ng pagkakasakit, kapansanan, panganganak, pagsapit sa katandaan (old age), at kamatayan. Upang maisakatuparan ito ipinag-utos na lahat ng mga manggagawa sa pribadong sektor maging ang kabilang sa impormal na sektor ay maging bahagi ng Social Security System (SSS)bilang ahensiya ng pamahalaan na may tungkulin para itaguyod ang Panseguruhan ng Kapanatagang Panlipunan ng mga Pilipino. Sa pamamagitan ng mga personal na kontribusyon ng mga manggagawa ito ay magsisilbi nilang pondo at maaaring magamit sa oras ng kanilang pangangailangan.
6.    REPUBLIC ACT 7875
Ito ay naging batas noong Pebrero 7, 1995 at kinilala bilang National Heath Insurance Act of 1995. Sa pamamagitan nito ay naitatag ang Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (Philhealth)na naglalayong mapagkalooban ang lahat ng mga mamamayang Pilipino ng isang maayos at sistematikong kaseguruhang pangkalusugan. Nakapaloob sa programang ito na ang pamahalaan ay magkakaloob ng subsidy sa mga mamamayan na walang sapat na kakayahang pinansiyal sa oras na sila ay magkaroon ng pangangailangang medikal at pangkalusugan gaya na lamang ng operasyon at hospitalization program.

 Maliban pa sa mga nabanggit na batas, may iba pang ipinatutupad para sa mga partikular na sektor ng manggagawang Pilipino tulad ng Magna Carta for Small Farmers (R.A. 7607), 
Magna Carta for Small Enterprises (R.A. 6977), at Barangay Microbusiness Enterprises Act (R.A. 9178). Samantala, ang sumusunod ay ilan sa mga programa at proyekto ng pamahalaan para sa mga mamamayan na bumubuo sa impormal na sektor:

1.    DOLE INTEGRATED LIVELIHOOD PROGRAM (DILP)
Ang programang ito ay ipinatutupad ng Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) na nauukol sa pangkabuhayang pangkaunlaran sa pamamagitan ng mga pagsasanay ng mga mamamayan partikular na para sa mga self-employed at mga walang sapat na hanapbuhay.
2.    SELF-EMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE KAUNLARAN PROGRAM (SEA-K)
 Isa sa mga pangkabuhayang programa ng Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD)na nagbibigay ng mga gawain at pagsasanay upang mapaunlad ng mga mahihirap na pamilya ang kanilang mga kasanayan at makapagsimula ng sariling negosyong pangkabuhayan at pagtatayo ng mga samahang panlipunan na maaaring magpautang sa mga kasapi gaya ng Self-Employment Kaunlaran Associations (SKA’s).
3.    INTEGRATED SERVICES FOR LIVELIHOOD ADVANCEMENT OF THE FISHERFOLKS (ISLA)
Ang proyektong ito ay para sa mga  munisipalidad o bayan na ang pangunahing ikinabubuhay ay pangingisda. Tinutulungan ng pamahalaan ang mga mangingisda sa pamamagitan ng pagkakaloob ng mga pagsasanay upang mas mapaghusay pa nila ang kanilang hanapbuhay. Maliban pa rito, nagtatayo ng mga training center para sa mga mangingisda at kanilang pamilya upang sanayin sa iba pang alternatibong mga gawaing pangkabuhayan na maaari nilang pagkunan ng karagdagang kita.
4.    CASH-FOR-WORK PROGRAM (CWP)
Ito ay programa ng Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD), na kung saan sa ilalim  nito, ang mga biktima ng kalamidad o mga evacuee ay bibigyan ng kabayaran kapalit ng serbisyong kanilang isasagawa o pagtulong sa panahon ng rehabilitasyon at rekonstruksiyon ng mga nasalantang lugar. Ang programang ito ay ipinatutupad ng pamahalaan bilang pansamantala o alternatibong mapagkukunan ng kabuhayan o kita ng mga taong nawalan ng hanapbuhay dulot ng mga nabanggit na sitwasyon.

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Techpopop: Mga Batas, Programa, at Patakarang Pang-Ekonomiya Kaugnay sa Impormal na Sektor
Mga Batas, Programa, at Patakarang Pang-Ekonomiya Kaugnay sa Impormal na Sektor
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